🔥🔥🔥 Ethical Issues: Tackling The Gender Wage Gap

Sunday, December 26, 2021 9:25:13 AM

Ethical Issues: Tackling The Gender Wage Gap



Integrated reporting is an initiative designed to help organisations to report on the mix of tangible Ethical Issues: Tackling The Gender Wage Gap intangible assets for their stakeholders. Meaningful workforce reporting will Ethical Issues: Tackling The Gender Wage Gap require some level of people analytics. SDG These supplied clothes to well-known fashion brands the god zeus the world. It is surprising, but Ethical Issues: Tackling The Gender Wage Gap do have some tricks to lower prices without hindering quality. The next step is to implement ESG considerations throughout the investment lifecycle. One cannot Ethical Issues: Tackling The Gender Wage Gap people more rational, but one can establish choices from a mix of rationality and irrationality to help Ethical Issues: Tackling The Gender Wage Gap adapt accordingly.

There Is No Gender Wage Gap

However it is probably more useful and sustainable to ensure robust mechanisms and frameworks are in place that allow for these informed negotiations to happen on a regular basis between employers and workers. In many countries, and certainly those where many brands source their products, wages fall far below any interpretation of a living wage, so whether or not an exact figure has been calculated, it is worth seeking ways to ensure that workers can improve their wages.

This rate has been calculated by the Low Pay Commission. We have put together some answers to help with understanding this. Living wage is a term with a specific meaning that is well understood internationally. In the UK the term has been further defined under the auspices of the Living Wage Foundation, which adopts a rigorous calculation methodology, informed by multi-stakeholder focus groups. UK employers wishing to pay their staff a living wage should use the figures provided by the Living Wage Foundation. In the first instance employers should be encouraging freedom of association and collective bargaining to ensure that wages are set at a level that is agreed by both workers and their employers.

This should include adjustment of wages to maintain existing reasonable differentials between different pay grades. Although it will be legal to pay workers different amounts for the same work when the new rate comes in, this would constitute discrimination according to the ETI Base Code. Another question concerns the behavioural effects that the new rate will have around the boundary between under and over 25s. One issue is that younger workers who see older colleagues getting paid more for the same job may tend to become demoralised and thus less productive.

If there is a contractual agreement with workers that they will receive a premium rate for overtime then this must be respected. Progress towards a living wage in ETI member supply chains is a long standing commitment, however we recognise that for those employers currently paying significantly lower than the new rate the extent of the increase and the short timescale provided will present challenges. As with any other cost increases such as raw material costs, or indeed reductions such as fuel costs, the value chain as a whole will have to adjust. It may be possible to accommodate these increases out of existing margins, or through increased productivity and efficiency, it may be however that the value chain as a whole from primary producer to consumer needs to accommodate such changes.

We would caution that suppliers are not left to manage this change on their own at the risk of unintended consequences, such as increased quotas for production, or reduced benefits. We would expect our members to take a mature approach to accommodating these increases in the journey towards a full living wage. Breadcrumb Home issues. Raising wages: an urgent imperative A wage that's enough to meet basic needs and to provide some discretionary income - why is this still elusive for so many workers? Living wage guidance and resources In the past decade, retailers and brands have made some progress in getting their suppliers to pay their workers their statutory entitlements - in other words, the prevailing minimum wage plus any pension contributions, sickness or holiday pay they are entitled to.

Without a living wage workers may be compelled to work excessive overtime hours or multiple jobs become bonded labourers put their children into work instead of school be denied their basic human rights to food, shelter, nutrition, health, housing and education and suffer social deprivations such as being unable to take part in cultural events be unable to withstand crises such as ill health. Workers on living wages are likely to be more productive — because they are better motivated less likely to leave — reduced attrition means lower recruitment and training costs healthier — reducing loss of working hours due to sickness. How does living wage differ from minimum wage? A minimum wage is a national floor level set by the government.

A living wage is what workers need to provide their families with decent standards of living The national minimum wage in many countries is often not sufficient to enable a worker to provide his or her family with a decent living standard; ie, provide basic needs and allow some discretionary income for emergencies etc. Why is living wage rising on the global agenda? The gap between national minimum wages and cost of living increasing The growing awareness and concern of consumers about working conditions heightened further by incidents such as the Rana Plaza collapse The continued development of international standards for business and ethics. What are the challenges to achieving living wages? Wage levels come about through a complex economic process of labour supply and demand, through negotiations, established policy norms, the power relations between workers and employers etc.

Artificially setting wages may be impracticable or may lead to unintended consequences. If overall budgets are not increased, increasing wages for some workers could lead to others being laid off or not recruited — ie increased unemployment Lower skilled workers, may be priced out of the job market because the value they add is not seen to be equivalent to the new higher level of wages Companies may be unwilling or unable individually to increase the prices they pay to suppliers for products In a top down approach, if higher prices are paid, suppliers may not pass price increases on to workers, particularly if workers have no bargaining power.

What can brands and retailers do? Incentivise employers to pay living wages — eg by increasing orders to those suppliers. Improve productivity and efficiency to enable the value chain to accommodate wage growth. Mitigate the impact of wage increases on unemployment or other unintended consequences in your supply chains. Join forces with other ETI members, companies, NGOs and trade unions, to share lessons on working towards living wages.

All of the above! Knowledge exchange between development partners such as agricultural scientists and farmers were mediated through rural radio Hambly Odame, In her paper, Quebral argued that development communication had become a science, requiring the tasks associated with communicating development-oriented issues be based on scientific inquiry. At the time the field was limited to agricultural and rural development. At the time the term 'development support communication' was used in UNDP programmes under Erskine Childers, with coauthor and wife, Malicca Vajrathron.

In , in the Institute of Development Communication's faculty papers series, Alexander Flor proposed expanding the definition of development communication to include the perspective of cybernetics and general systems theory :. If information counters entropy and societal breakdown is a type of entropy, then there must be a specific type of information that counters societal entropy.

The exchange of such information — be it at the individual, group, or societal level — is called development communication. The center's vision is to be a leading centre of excellence in development training, communication and consultancy services. As an extension arm of Kasetsart University its international service mission includes building and maintaining quality services to support organizations in their efforts for sustainable development in social and economic sectors. The evolution of the participatory development communication school involved collaboration between First World and Third World development communication organizations.

The World Bank actively promotes this field through its Development Communication division and published the Development Communication Sourcebook in , a resource addressing the history, concepts and practical applications of this discipline. The difference seems to be a matter of semantics and not ideology since the end goals of these global organizations are almost identical to each other.

Communication for Development C4D goes beyond providing information. It involves understanding people, their beliefs and values, the social and cultural norms that shape their lives. It includes engaging communities and listening to adults and children as they identify problems, propose solutions and act upon them. Communication for development is seen as a two-way process for sharing ideas and knowledge using a range of communication tools and approaches that empower individuals and communities to take actions to improve their lives. World Bank defines Development Communication "as an interdisciplinary field, is based on empirical research that helps to build consensus while it facilitates the sharing of knowledge to achieve a positive change in the development initiative.

It is not only about effective dissemination of information but also about using empirical research and two-way communications among stakeholders". Development Communication division, the World Bank. One of the first examples of development communication was Farm Radio Forums in Canada. From to farmers met weekly to listen to radio programs, supplemented by printed materials and prepared questions to encourage discussion. Later the Forums dealt with social and economic issues.

This model of adult education or distance education was later adopted in India and Ghana. It was a forerunner of the school-on-air SOA concept that provided informal education for farmers. Established in , Global South Development Magazine has been a recent example of development communication in practice. Instructional television was used in El Salvador during the s to improve primary education. One problem was a lack of trained teachers. Teaching materials were improved to make them more relevant. More children attended school and graduation rates increased. It mainly used interpersonal communication in women's clubs.

Oryu Li's success did not recur in all villages. The initial effort had the advantage of a remarkable local leader and visits from the provincial governor. This was an attempt to deal with chronic malnourishment among children. The project used cooking demonstrations, posters and broadcasts on local commercial radio stations. Some people tried soybeans but the outcome of the project was unclear. The books were in Albanian and featured Superman and Wonder Woman. The aim was to teach children what to do when they find an unexploded land mine left over from Kosovo's civil war.

The comic books instruct children not to touch and not to move, but instead to call an adult for help. JHR works directly with journalists, providing monthly workshops, student sessions, on the job training and additional programs on a country by country basis. Television and radio played a complementary role in the dissemination of literacy training programs. Live coverage of literacy worker and students was used to dramatise and this was reinforced on radio and in newspapers.

Development communication policy covers formal and informal processes where interests are defined, expressed and negotiated by actors with different levels of power and with the goal of influencing policy decisions. Alexander G. Flor, Ph. Development communication is intended to build consensus and facilitate knowledge sharing to achieve positive change in development initiatives. It disseminates information and employs empirical research, two-way communication and dialogue among stakeholders. It is a management tool to help assess socio-political risks and opportunities. By using communication to bridge differences and take action towards change, development communication can lead to successful and sustainable results.

Development communication is a response to historic, social and economic factors that limit access to information and citizen participation. These include poverty and unemployment, limited access to basic services, remote settlement patterns, lack of access to technology, lack of information, inadequate health services, lack of education and skills and lack of infrastructure. FAO asserted that communication can play a decisive role in promoting human development. Democracy, decentralization and the market economy empower individuals and communities to control their own destinies. Stimulating awareness, participation, and capabilities are vital. Policies must encourage effective planning and implementation of communication programs.

Lee advocated that communication policies and practices require joint action among leaders in social, economic, scientific, educational and foreign affairs and that success requires constant contact and consultation with communicators and citizens. Attended by delegates from ten countries, it drew up basic recommendations including the organization of national development communication councils by each country's governmental, educational and media groups. According to Habermann and De Fontgalland, the difficulties in the adoption of a viable development communication policy have to be simultaneously analyzed horizontally and vertically. Horizontally government agencies, semi-governmental offices e.

Vertically, information must flow in both directions between the population base and decision-making bodies. This involves local and supra-local administrations that are active in handing out directives and reporting back to the government. In Quebral stressed the importance of equally recognizing systematic practice along with formal research as a legitimate basis for decisions. According to her, research must precede and become the foundation of policy. The design and implementation of policies is becoming more complex, and the number and type of actors involved in policy implementation more diverse; [65] hence, the policy process is evolving towards multi-actor and multi-goal situations.

Where several groups of stakeholders are involved in the policy process, a stakeholder analysis can provide a useful resource. Stakeholder analysis can help analyze the behavior, intentions, interrelations, agendas, interests and the resources of stakeholders in the policy processes. Hannan and Freeman include groups or individual who can affect or be affected by the achievement of the organization's objectives, while others exclude those who cannot influence the outcome. For instance, Brugha and Varvasovszky defined stakeholder as "individuals, groups, and organizations who have an interest stake and the potential to influence the actions and aims of an organization, project, or policy direction.

Education sector — Conducts research that underlies subsequent policies. Communication industry — Influences communication policies. Private sector — Avoid policies that limit content and to protect themselves from opponents. Religious sector — Traditionally opposes policies that allow obscenity, violence and profanity to be distributed. Foreign interests — e. Consumers — Traditionally not consulted, but more recently claiming to protect the public interest.

The United Nations has recognised the importance of "the need to support two-way communication systems that enable dialogue and that allow communities to express their aspirations and concerns and participate in decisions Cuilenburg and McQuail identify three main phases of communications policy-making: [71]. Public Service Media Policy — —After the Second World War, policy was dominated by sociopolitical rather than economic and national strategic concerns. This phase began after the Second World War.

Policy expanded from addressing technical matters to the content of communications and to cover the traditional press. Regulation of mass media became increasingly linked to telecommunications regulation. Globalization and the permeability of national frontiers by multinational media limited the impact of policy in most countries. Development communication policy as a field experienced persistent conflict. Hamelink and Nordenstreng called for multistakeholder participation in information and communications technology ICT governance and for formal and informal policy development mechanisms to enable state and non-state actors to shape the media and communication industries.

Manyozo advocated a rethinking of communication for development policies, perceiving a failure by communication policy makers to identify funding institutions that encourage cultural imperialism and unequal power relations between Western and local organizations. He attributed this to the absence in communication policy debates of a political economy discourse. Development communication and the policy sciences provide a distinct role of development communication that is apart from traditional mass communication, its purposive nature Flor, Flor argues the importance of application of knowledge in social sciences where most of policy principles are drawn from. In the conduct of developmental activities, the role of communication is critical as it influences participation of individuals given that relevant information is well-disseminated.

For instance, communication media are critical in creating awareness, generating public interest and demand, and placing the issue on the public agenda and building social support Servaes, Development communication policy science take off from development theory that which it says that policy recommendation becomes an engine to the process of social change [76] Servaes, The concept of development communication policy science has reference to the following: a Diffusion model which enunciates that 'that the role of communication was 1 to transfer technological innovations from development agencies to their clients, and 2 to create an appetite for change through raising a 'climate for modernization' among the members of the public'.

A typology of Participation in Development Initiatives illustrates a participation ladder Mefalopulos, starting from the lowest form which is merely a form of token participation, to the highest form, where local stakeholders share equal weight in decision making with external stakeholders. The participation ladder consists of the following: a Passive participation. Stakeholders participate by being informed about what is going to happen or has already happened. People's feedback is minimal or nonexistent, and individual participation is assessed mainly through head-counting and occasionally through their participation in the discussion.

Because their input is not limited to meetings, it can be provided at different points in time. In the final analysis, however, this consultative process keeps all the decision-making power in the hands of external professionals who are under no obligation to incorporate stakeholders' input. Stakeholders take part in discussions and analysis of pre-determined objectives set by the project. This kind of participation, while it does not usually result in dramatic changes on "what" objectives are to be achieved, does provide valuable inputs on "how" to achieve them.

Functional participation implies the use of horizontal communication among stakeholders. Stakeholders are willing and able to be part of the process and participate in joint analysis, which leads to joint decision making about what should be achieved and how. While the role of outsiders is that of equal partners in the initiative, local stakeholders are equal partners with a decisive say in decisions concerning their lives. In his writings, this concept can be deduced to mean creating guidelines that "stems from the need for actively applying knowledge from and principles of the social sciences in solving large-scale societal problems under conditions of social change" and of which in the process communication is a critical variable.

UNESCO posits that in order to effect positive developmental change, there is a need to form people and processes that facilitate the creation of knowledge. For development to happen, a two-way horizontal model which allow direct participation of those most affected by the development issue s can be adopted. In this model, the stakeholder's participation are in a form of defining and implementing solutions and identifying development directions. Engaging in dialogue with stakeholders for purposes of understanding their perceptions, perspectives, values, attitudes and practices are essential inputs to the design and implementation of development initiatives.

Development communication policy science is a thriving and a contemporary field in social sciences. According to Flor , development communication and policy sciences are regarded as distinct and mutually exclusive areas of study but are inextricably linked. He added that development communication and the policy sciences, although different in scope, stem from the same rationale: the need for actively applying knowledge from the principles [82] of social sciences in solving large-scale societal problems under conditions of social change. As an academic discipline, development communication policy science is the study of the use of the art and the science of policy in the development communication context.

Development communication's ultimate goal is to catalyze local development activities, local development planning and implementation, and local communication to smoothen the path to development. It is the science which uses communication to educate, change and motivate people's attitudes and values leading to developmental goals [83] Policy is a term which frames the action rather than simply describing it Colebatch, Understanding policy means understanding the way in which practitioners use it to shape action. It leads us to ask who is involved in what setting, how the action is framed and what significance in this process of the idea of authorized purpose, and not simply an outcome. Indeed, the "approach of the policy science is forward-looking and anticipatory".

Thus, development communication comprises the utilization of strategic communication to address the pressing issues and problems in the society. It is an area of study where the roles of media to aid in the social transformation is considered an utmost importance. The two fields are undoubtedly different. However, Flor [80] accurately stated that "both stem from the same rationale: the need for actively applying knowledge and principles of the social sciences in solving large-scale societal problems under conditions of social change". The connection between the two fields will be apparent once the question, 'what is the policy for?

Since policy is the pursuit of goals and the effect they have on the action; and development communication aims to facilitate social change, the two processes are represented as a sequence of stages in the development, beginning with the thought and the intention policy , moving through action brought about by communication, and ending with the solution action. To reiterate, unless the policy decision could shape the action, there would be no point in making it. When policy sciences and development communication have been firmly established in an organization or community, the instruments of policy analysis will provide "unprecedented versatility and effectiveness" Lasswell, It is important to know and understand that the stakeholders are not only the decision makers alone.

Flor identified seven sectors as stakeholders: the government, the education sector, the communication, industry, the private sector, the church, foreign vested interests and the consumers. Flor discussed the different concerns of each sectors such as the education sector for its involvement in communication aspect; the church, in fulfillment of its outreach activities; and the private sectors concerning how policies would affect how they do business. But among the enumerated sectors, the government still serves as the most powerful sector as it has a direct hand in implementing policies.

While the government is the most powerful, the most important stakeholder, but apparently the least involved in development of a policy, is actually the consumer or the regular citizens. While the government may impose a policy or a regulation, the success of it falls on the adoption and cooperation of the consumers. Development communication is a contemporary field in social science. This suggests that both mediated and non-mediated forms of communication are relevant to the development issue. This compromise is especially useful with the growing importance for development of the new information and communication technologies. Communication is not only about "selling ideas. It is applied to engage stakeholders, assess the situation, and devise effective strategies leading to better and more sustainable development initiatives.

It is more than transmitting information. It is about using communication to generate new knowledge and consensus in order to facilitate change. It provides relevant information and adequate motivation to impact on attitudes and behaviors of individuals or groups of people. The artistic side of communication involves designing creative messages and products, and identifying effective interpersonal, group and mass-media channels based on the sound knowledge of the participants we seek to reach. It is also about seeking change at different levels, including listening, building trust, sharing knowledge and skills, building policies, debating and learning for sustained and meaningful change.

Development Communication and Policy Sciences are inextricably linked. The University of Chicago and SSRC developments were themselves an outgrowth of earlier efforts that dated to at least the middle of the 19th century. It is a new set of paradigm which is oriented towards the needs of applying structured rationality, systematic knowledge and organized creativity to the directed development of humanity.

Policy making is not about its substantive content but rather with the improved methods, knowledge, and systems for better policy making. Lasswell's chosen phrase was "the policy sciences of democracy". To stress "sciences" resulted in a vision of rational analysis, while to stress 'democracy; led to a vision of politicizes governmental processes. The distinction is important in drawing attention to policy analysis as an academic activity concerned primarily with advancing understanding; and policy analysis as applied activity concerned mainly with contributing to the solution of social problems.

This vision of scientific method and democratic humanism, however, proved operationally difficult as the policy sciences moved to realize status and recognition during the and 's. These two approaches- process and content strengthened their respective identities, each claiming some sort of conceptual superiority. The underlying disciplines of policy sciences are the management sciences operations research, cost-effective analysis, systems analysis, economics and more and the behavioral sciences political science, sociology, social psychology, organization theory, behavioral theory of the firm, psychology of judgment and more.

The management sciences can be viewed as sciences of normative knowledge- what one should do with the application of their methodologies involving optimization of some objective function. Policy Sciences has long been at the forefront of development issues. In essence, development communication is the sharing of knowledge aimed at reaching a consensus for action that takes into account the interests, needs and capacities of all concerned.

It is thus a social process. It constitutes a major attempt to assert and achieve a central role for rationality and intellectualism in human affairs and to increase by jumps the capacity of humanity to direct its future. Policy sciences provide an integrated approach in solving various problems in local, national, regional and international level. Coined by Harold D. Lasswell, policy sciences draw knowledge from various disciplines where recommendations are formulated, hence, its integrated approach. Because of its integrative nature, policy sciences follow a systems approach such that elements are interrelated and forms a 'generality principle'. Following its interdisciplinary nature is the idea that policy sciences encourage diversity of perspectives from various disciplines.

This instigates consultative communication from various individuals in the principle of common interest. In the pursuit of knowledge, policy scientists need to be careful in deciphering relevance of particular knowledge given the impact of various knowledge sources that are trying to influence policy decisions. In this regard, informed decisions are drawn from critiquing, careful analysis and recommendations that will be beneficial to many rather than a few individuals. Lasswell 3 [] defines policy sciences as knowledge of the policy process as well as knowledge in this process. Torgerson [] states that Lasswell proposed the development of policy science-or policy sciences-as an interdisciplinary field to embrace all the social sciences and to produce knowledge applicable to public problems.

The term "policy sciences" in its plural form, therefore, emphasizes its interdisciplinary nature Flor, According to Hale , [] the central aim of policy sciences is to resolve problems [in the service of human dignity] and the diverse human, historical, and contextual element in public policy-making. This is a reiteration of the Lasswellian maxim on public policy in the following key elements: "contextual"; "problem-oriented"; "multi-method inquiry" or diverse empirical methods, "political", "normative, welfare-oriented" in the case of social policy goals; and posing "interdisciplinarity" or moving between humanities and social sciences.

Indeed, Lasswell's original goal of the policy sciences was to provide, "intelligence pertinent to the integration of values realized by and embodied by interpersonal relations [such as] human dignity and the realization of human capacities" Lasswell and Kaplan, p. According to Harold Lasswell , the policy sciences are concerned with the knowledge of and in the decision processes of the public and civic order.

At one moment, the analyst regards his subject-matter as an objective phenomenon, but this phase alternates with another in which the analyst comes to view himself as actively involved in the phenomenon which he investigates. Inquiry displays both tension and interplay between these moments; they are distinct yet interwoven, complementary in the ongoing development and refinement of contextual orientation Togerson, Empirical knowledge pertains to those generated through scientific inquiry and observation as applied to decision processes. As such, the notion of the policy sciences is construed in various shades since it was introduced in the s and over the years, Lasswell and his colleagues refined the concept, through practice and peer review, as the intellectual tools needed to support problem-oriented, contextual, and multi-method inquiry in the service of human dignity for all.

As such, the emphasis of policy sciences is on applying scientific or empirical evidences in understanding problems so that more realistic, responsive and effective interventions are identified and implemented. Since a problem is multidimensional, various scientific disciplines are needed to form a comprehensive analysis of a certain phenomenon. The trend toward a policy sciences viewpoint is a move away from fragmentation and the fragmented "worm's eye view" of policy matters. According to Yehezkel Dror in his article entitled, "Approaches to Policy Sciences," two of the main features of policy sciences can be summarized as follows: 1 Policy sciences, as with all applied scientific knowledge, are, in principle, instrumental-normative in the sense of being concerned with means and intermediate goals rather than absolute values.

But policy sciences are sensitive to the difficulties of achieving "value free sciences" and try to contribute to value choice by exploring value implications, value consistencies, value costs, and the behavioral foundations of value commitments. While the main test of policy sciences is better achievement of considered goals through more effective and efficient policies, policy sciences as such do not deal with discrete policy problems, but do provide improved methods and knowledge for doing so.

Furthermore, he mentioned that the main foci of concern for policy sciences include, for example, i policy analysis, which provides heuristic methods for identification of preferable policy alternatives; ii policy strategies, which provide guidelines for postures, assumptions, and main guidelines to be followed by specific policies for example, with respect to incrementalism versus innovation, attitudes to risk and time, comprehensive versus shock policies, and goal-oriented versus capacity oriented policies ; iii evaluation and feedback, including, for instance, social indicators, social experimentation, and organizational learning; and iv improvement of the system for policymaking-by redesign and sometimes nova design designing anew , including changes in input, personnel, structure, equipment, external demands, and so forth.

As defined by Laswell , [] the policy sciences may be conceived as knowledge of the policy process and of the relevance of knowledge in the process. Its approach is anticipatory which aims to improve policymaking in order to provide as much lead time as necessary in the solution of societal problems. Therefore, one issue that may arise along the way is how to regard societal problems and issues scientifically.

However, according to Lasswell and McDougal , [] while the problems are addressed scientifically, there is also a need for considering the contextual and normative approach to solving problems. The reason is that the knowledge produced is not only universalizable but ethical and empirico-analytical. Through this, policy science is thought not only problem-oriented but also multidisciplinary and contextual. Generally, the relationship between development communication and the policy sciences can be described as inextricable [] although both fields of study have different concentration, scope, and limitations. Furthermore, both development communication and the policy sciences share the same practice: the need for actively applying knowledge from and principles of the social sciences in solving large-scale societal problems under conditions of social change.

The policy sciences provide an integrated and comprehensive approach for addressing issues and problems at all levels in ways that help clarify and secure the common interest. Policy sciences are concerned with helping people make better decisions toward fostering human dignity for all. Since we are living in a "turbulent field" environment, policy science is necessary to address issues before it will get bigger.

The approach of policy sciences, [80] as cited by Flor in his article, is forward-looking or anticipatory. Policy sciences tell us what we need to do and prepare before certain issues or problems occur. Using an allegorical definition, Dror , as cited by Ongkiko and Flor , explains that " one should not leave the problem of crossing a river until the river is reached; rather, one should survey the territory in advance, identify rivers flowing through it, decide whether it is at all necessary to cross the river—and if so, where and how to cross it—then prepare in advance the materials for crossing the river and design a logistics network so that the material is ready when the river is reached.

These variables are important factors in coming up with a sound and relevant policy. In the context of communication policy development, the policy sciences are necessary to make more purposeful, responsive, and effective communication policies. Profoundly influenced by Freud and Marx, Lasswell emphasized the importance of the contextual orientation of policy analysts, both individually and collectively Lasswell, When he first articulated this principle of contextuality, Lasswell indeed referred explicitly to the "exposition of the dialectical method" [] in Lukacs's History and Class Consciousness , adding that the insights of psychoanalysis provided a complement to the Marxian dialectic which would aid in understanding "the symbolic aspects of historical development" Laswell, , p.

Here Lasswell proposed a mode of contextual-configurative analysis whereby, through "an act of creative orientation" Laasswell, , p. In this regard, Lasswell considered such contextual orientation indispensable to the conduct of rational inquiry, and urged the use of contextual-configurative analysis in the development of a policy science profession. Hale , p. All for good reasons: first, no decision can adequately be understood apart from the larger social process in which it is itself apart.

Thus contextuality is a key element in the policy sciences. As a reliance on ideology, principle, and grand historical projects cannot, given the complexity and contextuality of policy problems, serve with reliable solution, a discipline geared to resolve problems should expressly orient itself on those problems and should be purposeful. Thus problem orientation is the second key element in the policy sciences.

Finally, due to the multidimensionality and complexity of many of these problems it stands to reason that the policy scientist should draw from a diversity of methodologies. Thus methodological diversity is the third key element in the policy sciences. It is Lasswell's sincere belief that understanding the policy formation and decision-making process will eventually also be beneficial in the creation of public policy Hale, Hepp, A. It combines qualitative interviews on media appropriation, egocentric network maps, and media diaries. Through the triangulation of these methods of data collection, it is possible to gain a differentiated insight into the specific meanings, structures and processes of communication networks across a variety of media.

The approach is illustrated using a recent study dealing with the mediatisation of community building among young people. In this context, the qualitative communication network analysis has been applied to distinguish "localists" from "centrists", "multilocalists", and "pluralists". These different "horizons of mediatised communitisation" are connected to distinct communication networks. Since this involves today a variety of different media, the contextual analysis of communication networks necessarily has to imply a cross-media perspective.

Oancea, A. Sciences are policy sciences when they clarify the process of policy-making in society or supply data for the making of rational judgments on policy questions" Lasswell The 'art' of policy sciences, therefore, seek to improve decision-making by reinforcing and supporting human dignity to elide the blinders of instrumental reason by addressing the manifold of human experience Hale, The personalities who significantly play vital roles in this field are the policy scientists and analysts who are involved in the scientific design, formulation, analysis, and evaluation of policies in particular and are concerned with the study of the policy-making process in general Flor, Lasswell and McDougal [] called on "policy scientists to aid decision makers in clarifying goals, identifying trends relative to goals, analyzing the factors causing or contributing to specific trends, projecting the future, and inventing and evaluating policy proposals—alternative actions that may be taken related to the desired results.

To guide communication policy-makers in addressing challenges, Picard and Pickard [] proposed policy principles that aim to guide contemporary media and communications policymaking in democratic countries so the contributions of these operations and systems to society may be improved. They maintain that "Media and communications policies are central to many of the social and political issues that societies face today. On the other hand, fundamental principles are constant, thus providing guidance on how to respond to new concerns and challenges and making appropriate policies. Picard and Pickard [] note that "policy principles are coherent statements based on underlying norms and values that help policymakers and organisations respond to issues and take part in legislative and regulatory activities".

In practice, principles are articulated and then used to set policy objectives and determine the means to achieve them. The latter two stages opine Picard and Pickard , are subjected to political processes that determine the final policy outcome. Picard and Pickard [] therefore came up with the following rubric list of potential principles that they believe are crucial in crafting a much reflective communication policy:.

Principles are therefore not neutral, because they are normative, reflecting specific values that are subject to contestation. In choosing among policy principles, Picard and Pickard [] assert that policymakers should optimally be concerned about effects of policy on all stakeholders , giving primacy to fundamental communication needs of society and seeking to balance social and economic benefit. Flor , an expert on Knowledge Management for Development, which discusses the need for convergence in society through inter-cultural communication, using case studies in Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines. It also examines environmental conflicts, indigenous peoples, and the official development assistance in the Philippines. In the book, Flor noted that communication and culture are "inextricably linked".

Societal conflict in this age of informatization is a "function of culture caused by a dysfunction of societal communication". The quality and degree of societal communication — the mass media and education—determine the ways that cultures are exposed to others. The higher the quality and degree of inter-cultural communication, the lower the propensity for conflict, and vice versa. He observed that many of the world's contemporary wars — in Rwanda, Basque, Bosnia, Kosovo, Chechnya, Afghanistan, Aceh, East Timor—are not being waged by national political struggles "but by cultures".

For example, Catholic bishops and Islam ulama agree that the conflict in the island of Mindanao in the Philippines is triggered by "opposing value systems on the use of natural resources , opposing social structures feudal vs. One of the first steps to help repair the situation is for communication policy scientists to "begin with tolerance as a short-term solution, and understanding as a long-term solution". Tolerance and understanding require "good communication" from both ends of the spectrum that are striving to achieve "mutual understanding" — the goal of Kincaid for communication in his Convergence Model. The concept of convergence looks at the communication process as cyclical between source and receiver, and interactive between their message and feedback.

This problem has resulted partly from the unintended consequence of Lasswell's distinction between 'knowledge of' and 'knowledge in' the policy process. In others words, there is a major gap between the ways in the development and use of policy process theories and policy analysis tools. A new policy sciences updates the language of the old to focus more on choice and contexts and embrace applied and basic science in conducting policy analysis and policy process research.

The new policy sciences highlights 1. For example, policymaker's attention is fleeting and they engage emotionally with information, which limits the impact of a lengthy evidence-based analysis and puts the onus on policy analysts to tell a simple persuasive story. Further, given the changing landscape and the multitude of choices facing people engaged in the policy process, single-shot solutions will not work. The best way to structure the policy sciences is to direct the basic and applied science towards realistic depictions of choice in complex contexts.

One cannot make people more rational, but one can establish choices from a mix of rationality and irrationality to help people adapt accordingly. The biggest contribution of the new policy sciences is to encourage critical thinking. Above all else, dispense with the idea of comparing real-world policymaking with the myth of comprehensively rational action, to advise people not to give up their bounded and irrational minds but to look for opportunities to learn and adapt their strategies to better achieve their goals. The new policy sciences has one simple motto: "know your audience and their context.

At the context level, although all audiences are embedded in decision-making venues, policy subsystems, and political systems, policy theories are used to make sense of complexity and that each theory only captures one piece of the puzzle. In the end, the "new policy sciences can help policy makers, policy scholars, policy scientists, policy advocates, and development communication practitioners who are in to policy-making by using: 1 psychology and cognitive science to describe the art of choice, in which people use reliable short cuts to gather information to make good enough decisions and 2 multiple policy process theories to describe a policy context's ever-changing complexity.

In a changing world communication about development challenges and advocacy for change have become increasingly complex. Navigating these challenges by offering insights and suggestions and new tools such as the rapid increase in the use of new and social media contrasted with the opportunities and risks it poses for development communication is helpful for various stakeholders such as policy makers. Various literature suggest new methods for policy sciences and development communication.

Sudeep Uprety's [] article entitled "Engaging Policy Audiences - The dynamics of development communications," talks about visibility in the current digital era. Development organizations must now have cameras along with other essentials. The project teams, along with the researchers, engineers, medics and logistics personnel, also now have people carrying camera, pen and paper. In other words, communication has become an integral component in the world of development. Also, creativity is essential in development communications. Development organizations need to come up with unique ways of engaging audiences.

Reaching the right audience- finding the engagement community and communities who will find your information useful is very critical. Acknowledging the limitations of diverse and sometimes hard-to-reach audiences, development organizations often engage communications and give them creative and artistic freedom, allowing them to come up with content that generates interest across a range of audiences — beyond the circle of those working in the field of development. Organizations aim to engage wider audiences with strong messages — linking local voices to the entire globe.

Communications experts nowadays, apply the age-old art of story-telling, making their messages more visually interesting and exciting to hear about Uprety, Moreover, social media and online communications tools such as infographics and Graphics Interchange Format GIF videos have provided a great platform in terms of reaching out and engaging with a wide variety of audiences. This is useful for development communications practitioners to understand the extent of audience engagement with their content — be it a blog, a report, a video or an infographic- and mold their content and style of presentation accordingly Uprety, Furthermore, Development organizations are now focusing on the science of evidence uptake and knowledge management to synthesize project findings into user-friendly formats so that they are widely read with interest by various stakeholders.

Simply put, the delivery of the right kind of message to the intended audience in the right manner, is required. With the changing dynamics of internet and communications, the world of development is developing, therefore delivering key messages is also constantly evolving and adapting. In this continuous evolution, the core of any successful communication strategy is still the resonance and relevance of the message itself and, essentially, its ability to touch hearts and lives. Taeihagh [] discussed crowdsourcing as rapidly evolving and applied in situations where ideas, labor, opinion or expertise of large groups of people is used.

Crowdsourcing is now used in various policy-making initiatives such as in open collaboration platforms and specific stages of the policy process agenda-setting and policy evaluations. Crowdsourcing is a considered a new tool for policy-making and the nuances of the technology and its use and implications for different stages of the policy process is explored. The study highlights the role of crowdsourcing, its impact as a policy tool or as a technological enabler and the current trends and future directions of crowdsourcing. Kerschberg [] also talks about the power of crowdsourcing in developing regions.

There is optimism in a nascent paradigm shift of the realities of a poverty-stricken community. Data flow has the power to effect change, not only politically and socially, but on more fundamental levels such as living standards and sheer survival. Most enjoy the benefits of digital technology to share and collate data. For years, Google flu trends allow people to prepare for flu outbreaks, either in the home or in the emergency room. When those services are placed in those areas that need them most, the potential is overwhelming. By supplying someone in a developing region with the physical means to access data, one not only automatically brings them into the loop of communication, but also introduces them into a whole new business infrastructure powered by crowdsourcing methodologies.

With all these new literature on policy sciences, now is a great time to work on more policy engagements in development communication and achieving development goals. His involvement in communication policymaking is facilitated by the so-called institutionalization of people power. His expertise may be directly tapped by the most important stakeholder, the media consumer. The participation of information users and media consumers in policy making may be realized by the formation of a nationwide media consumer's organization or a federation of local organizations of this nature in which policy analysts play a significant role.

This proposed organization could initiate media education in the formal and non-formal modes. Media education at the formal level may be facilitated by lobbying for the inclusion of such in existing secondary and tertiary curricula. Non-formal education may be conducted through media consumer sponsored awareness campaigns. This organization could also conduct its own audience related studies and policy research. It could establish a nationwide network involving the church, academic communities, grassroots organizations and cause-oriented groups.

Communication policy scientists may also serve as part of the staff of our legislators in the Congress and Senate. In their private capacities, they can form research and development outfits or "think tanks" whose services may be availed of by government agencies. Indeed, now is a fortuitous time for policy engagement in development communication. Culture, politics, economics and technology have an impact on policy decisions. In order to investigate the factors that influence communications policy, one has to go beyond conventional views of media and communication and should combine these with policy studies. According to experts, communication policy science would be understood if the public just had access to the right scientific information. Coyle, in his article "Theory of Development Communication", articulates that people have options to change their ways of life through communication.

People improve their lives and ways of thinking through communication, sharing their perspectives and understanding what is going on in their surroundings. As highlighted by Flor, communication development has something to do with policy science as these are anchored for improving policy making. As stipulated in Walt Rostow's theory in Boado's article, societies progress through specific stages of development on their way to modernity. Policy makers and scientists can communicate directly with the public through social media and blogging.

By using social media outlets such as Twitter and Facebook, policymakers and scientists can serve as critical mediators in disseminating scientific information by sharing advancements directly with society. Citing an article, "Dimensions of an Information and Communication Policy": "for a national policy to be effective, it must attempt to be comprehensive, covering issues that are considered relevant for that particular society".

Such communication policy must be centered on development, in transforming the lives of marginalized people. Development encompasses economic benefits, health improvement, education and other transformative agents. The process involves people empowerment in identifying goals, needs, and solutions to various challenges. Thus, communication policy that is national in scope has broad objective dimensions as well as specific areas where community needs are addressed. Intervention of communication strategies such as dissemination of information both mediated and personal where the latter constitutes participatory communication is deemed important.

John A. By citing a Unesco report made by experts on communication and planning, Lee defines communication policies as "sets of principles and norms established to guide [] the behaviour of communication systems. He adds that the dimensions of communication policies as well as communication planning encompass the communication system, its components and structures; the functions of the system; the "clients" or audience using the system; the types of information carried by the system and its components; the values and qualities of the information content; and a variety of considerations about the system, its functions, audience, types of information and qualities.

Members of the audience are classified based on such characteristics as age, sex, occupations, socio-economic strata, urban-rural locations and persuasions. Types of information refer to the conversation, cultural forms, data, education, entertainment, general information, music, news and opinion. Meanwhile, truth, objectivity, relevance, educational effectiveness, violence, humour, sex, libel are examples of values and qualities of the information content.

According to Lee, the "consideration, identification and determination" of the scope of specific communication systems and societal principles and norms are needed in formulating communication policies. In his paper, Lee also discusses participation in the formulation of communication policies by asking, "Who is involved? They are government executive, legislative bodies, authorities in charge of social and economic planning, individual ministries and their planning boards, communication enterprises, professional organizations, the citizen, the social scientist and the economist. Lloyd Sommerland, UNESCO Regional Communication Adviser for Asia, [] points out the difference between communication policies and communication planning by saying that the former provides "the principles, rules and guidelines on which the communication system is built," while the latter is concerned with the policy implementation.

He shares that every country engages in development planning that touches different sectors of a society like "agriculture, manufacturing, commerce, education, health, transport and communication, social and community services. The word "communication" in this particular context includes telecommunications, mass media print and broadcast , face-to-face communication and traditional channels and these are resources tapped by a society "to enable information to flow within it", he adds. Sommerland also underlines that communication policies are not the ends and they provide a framework for action.

Strategic planning translates into quantified targets and systematic approaches, the general objectives of communication policies," he says. Sommerland also supports some claims of Lee that communication policies are either embedded or implied in the existing policies of a nation. Because communication is interdisciplinary and because it is the thread which binds a nation together, communication policies even if incomplete and implicit, are to be found in many different parts of a political and social system. Development communication and policy sciences exhibits mutuality as catalysts of change in this fluid environment.

More recently, the International Monetary Fund has published studies Ethical Issues: Tackling The Gender Wage Gap found that Ethical Issues: Tackling The Gender Wage Gap decline Ethical Issues: Tackling The Gender Wage Gap unionization in many advanced economies and the establishment Ethical Issues: Tackling The Gender Wage Gap neoliberal economics have fueled rising income inequality. Development communication activity embodies models of social change that are Rest Propensity Research Paper across political and cultural boundaries wherein, issues of gender, communication, and Henry Ford Before The Assembly Line Analysis are grounded in Ethical Issues: Tackling The Gender Wage Gap structures Ethical Issues: Tackling The Gender Wage Gap processes of power, which condition access to and acquisition of economic and social resources. Inin the Institute of Development Communication's faculty papers series, Alexander Flor proposed expanding the definition of development communication Piracy Persuasive Speech include the perspective of cybernetics and general systems Ethical Issues: Tackling The Gender Wage Gap :. Living Ethical Issues: Tackling The Gender Wage Gap proponents argue that Ethical Issues: Tackling The Gender Wage Gap the minimum wage equivalent to the Ethical Issues: Tackling The Gender Wage Gap wage means that companies would be paying in wages what the government has been paying in benefits.

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