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We Still Like Ike Rhetorical Analysis



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Fifty Years Later: Why We Still Like Ike

Moreover, persuasion must be thrilling enough to excite the listener yet vague enough to allow "the frustrated to Successful mass movements need not believe in a god, but they must believe in a devil. Hatred unifies the true believers, and "the ideal devil is a foreigner" attributed with nearly supernatural powers of evil. The hatred of a true believer is actually a disguised self-loathing, as with the condemnation of capitalism by socialists while Russia under the Bolsheviks saw more intensive monopolization of the economy than any other nation in history.

Without a devil to hate, mass movements often falter for example, Chiang Kai-shek effectively led millions of Chinese during the Japanese occupation of the s and the s but quickly fell out of favor once the Japanese were defeated. Fanaticism is encouraged in mass movements. Hoffer argues that "the fanatic is perpetually incomplete and insecure" [16] and thus uses uncompromising action and personal sacrifice to give meaning to his life.

Hoffer identifies three main personality types as the leaders of mass movements, "men of words", "fanatics", and "practical men of action". No person falls exclusively into one category, and their predominant quality may shift over time. Mass movements begin with "men of words" or "fault-finding intellectuals" such as clergy, journalists, academics, and students who condemn the established social order such as Gandhi , Trotsky , Mohammed , and Lenin. The men of words feel unjustly excluded from or mocked and oppressed by the existing powers in society, and they relentlessly criticize or denigrate present institutions. Invariably speaking out in the name of disadvantaged commoners, the man of words is actually motivated by a deep personal grievance.

The man of words relentlessly attempts to "discredit the prevailing creeds" and creates a "hunger for faith" which is then fed by "doctrines and slogans of the new faith". Eventually, the fanatic takes over leadership of the mass movement from the man of words. While the "creative man of words" finds satisfaction in his literature, philosophy or art, the "noncreative man of words" feels unrecognized or stifled and thus veers into an extremism against the social order. Though the man of words and the fanatic share a discontent with the world, the fanatic is distinguished by his viciousness and urge to destroy. The fanatic feels fulfilled only in a perpetual struggle for power and change.

The book also explores the behavior of mass movements once they become established as social institutions or leave the "active phase". With their collapse of a communal framework, people can no longer defeat their abiding feelings of insecurity and uncertainty by belonging to a compact whole. If the isolated individual lacks opportunities for personal advancement, development of talents, and action such as those found on a frontier , he will seek substitutes. The substitutes would be pride instead of self-confidence, memberships in a collective whole like a mass movement, absolute certainty instead of understanding. The "practical men of action" take over leadership from the fanatics, marking the end of the "dynamic phase" and steering the mass movement away from the fanatic's self-destructiveness.

The movement at this stage still concerns itself with the frustrated—not to harness their discontent in a deadly struggle with the present, but to reconcile them with it; to make them patient and meek. The focus shifts from immediate demands for revolution to establishing the mass movement as a social institution where the ambitious can find influence and fame.

Leadership uses an eclectic bricolage of ideological scraps to reinforce the doctrine, borrowing from whatever source is successful in holding the attention of true believers. For example, proto-Christians were fanatics, predicting the end of the world, condemning idolatry, demanding celibacy and sowing discontent between family members, yet from those roots grew Roman Catholicism , which mimicked the elaborate bureaucratic structure of the Roman Empire , canonized early Christians as saints, and borrowed pagan holidays and rites. In the absence of a practical man of action, the mass movement often withers and dies with the fanatic Nazism died as a viable mass movement with Hitler's death.

Mass movements that succeed in causing radical change often exceed in brutality the former regime that the mass movement opposed. The Bolsheviks in Russia and the Jacobins in France ostensibly formed in reaction to the oppression of their respective monarchies but proved themselves far more vicious and brutal in oppressing their opponents. Hoffer does not take an exclusively negative view of "true believers" and the mass movements they begin. He gives examples of how the same forces that give rise to true believer mass movements can be channelled in more positive ways:. There are, of course, rare leaders such as Lincoln , Gandhi, even F. They do not hesitate to harness man's hungers and fears to weld a following and make it zealous unto death in service of a holy cause; but unlike a Hitler, a Stalin , or even a Luther and a Calvin , they are not tempted to use the slime of frustrated souls as mortar in the building of a new world They know that no one can be honorable unless he honors mankind".

Forty Thousand Quotations: Prose and Poetical. Dictionary of Quotations. These 28, selections feature non-English language sources including proverbs by a master Encyclopedist. These 6, quotations in 2, categories represent an encyclopedic classification of the canon's eternal passages. The 21, quotations in this standard reference bible, organized by major category, feature original language with translations. Prose Quotations from Socrates to Macaulay.

These 9, often lengthy selections highlight English prose geniuses like Addison, Burke, Johnson, Locke and Macaulay. Respectfully Quoted: A Dictionary of Quotations. The 2, entries in this eminently researched collection form the constellation of collected wisdom in American political debate. Familiar Short Sayings of Great Men. Christy, Robert.

Proverbs, Maxims and Phrases of All Ages. The 20, selections in this classic reference work comprise an encyclopedic scope of English proverbs. Hazlitt, William Carew. English Proverbs and Proverbial Phrases. Eisenhower warned that an arms race would take resources from other areas -- such as building schools and hospitals. On Jan. He called it the military-industrial complex, a formidable union of defense contractors and the armed forces. Eisenhower, a retired five-star Army general, the man who led the allies on D-Day, made the remarks in his farewell speech from the White House.

As NPR's Tom Bowman tells Morning Edition co-host Renee Montagne, Eisenhower used the speech to warn about "the immense military establishment" that had joined with "a large arms industry. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists, and will persist. Eisenhower gave the address after completing two terms in office; it was just days before the new president, John F. Kennedy, would be sworn in. Eisenhower was worried about the costs of an arms race with the Soviet Union, and the resources it would take from other areas -- such as building hospitals and schools. Bowman says that in the speech, Eisenhower also spoke as someone who had seen the horror and lingering sadness of war, saying that "we must learn how to compose differences not with arms, but with intellect and decent purpose.

Another concern, Bowman says, was the possibility that as the military and the arms industry gained power, they would be a threat to democracy, with civilians losing control of the military-industrial complex. American makers of ploughshares could, with time and as required, make swords as well. But we can no longer risk emergency improvisation of national defense; we have been compelled to create a permanent armaments industry of vast proportions.

The difference, Bowman says, is that before the late s, companies such as Ford built everything from jeeps to bombers -- then went back to building cars.

The rest of the. We Still Like Ike Rhetorical Analysis talking with Mary Ann last night. Of what?

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