✍️✍️✍️ Summary: Analyzing The Wage Gap

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Summary: Analyzing The Wage Gap

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There Is No Gender Wage Gap

Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems. Operating Vehicles, Mechanized Devices, or Equipment — Running, maneuvering, navigating, or driving vehicles or mechanized equipment, such as forklifts, passenger vehicles, aircraft, or water craft. Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.

Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work. Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions. Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.

Operate welding equipment. Maintain safety. Measure dimensions of completed products or workpieces to verify conformance to specifications. Select production equipment according to product specifications. Adjust equipment controls to regulate gas flow. Ignite fuel to activate heating equipment. Determine metal or plastic production methods. Mark products, workpieces, or equipment with identifying information. Monitor equipment operation to ensure that products are not flawed. Operate grinding equipment. Clean workpieces or finished products. Trim excess material from workpieces. Heat material or workpieces to prepare for or complete production. Align parts or workpieces to ensure proper assembly.

Design templates or patterns. Mount materials or workpieces onto production equipment. Notify others of equipment repair or maintenance needs. Watch operating equipment to detect malfunctions. Melt metal, plastic, or other materials to prepare for production. Solder parts or workpieces. Clean production equipment. Operate firefighting equipment. Reshape metal workpieces to established specifications. Cut industrial materials in preparation for fabrication or processing. Disassemble equipment for maintenance or repair.

Repair parts or assemblies. Operate metal or plastic forming equipment. Assemble temporary equipment or structures. Shape metal workpieces with hammers or other small hand tools. Review blueprints or other instructions to determine operational methods or sequences. All 22 displayed. Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — How much does this job require wearing common protective or safety equipment such as safety shoes, glasses, gloves, hard hats or life jackets?

Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job? Face-to-Face Discussions — How often do you have to have face-to-face discussions with individuals or teams in this job? Time Pressure — How often does this job require the worker to meet strict deadlines? Exposed to Contaminants — How often does this job require working exposed to contaminants such as pollutants, gases, dust or odors?

Work With Work Group or Team — How important is it to work with others in a group or team in this job? Contact With Others — How much does this job require the worker to be in contact with others face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise in order to perform it? Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — How much responsibility is there for the health and safety of others in this job?

Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — How often does this job require working exposed to sounds and noise levels that are distracting or uncomfortable? Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — What results do your decisions usually have on other people or the image or reputation or financial resources of your employer? Structured versus Unstructured Work — To what extent is this job structured for the worker, rather than allowing the worker to determine tasks, priorities, and goals? Spend Time Standing — How much does this job require standing? Exposed to Hazardous Equipment — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous equipment? Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings — How often does this job require exposure to minor burns, cuts, bites, or stings?

Indoors, Not Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in non-controlled environmental conditions e. Coordinate or Lead Others — How important is it to coordinate or lead others in accomplishing work activities in this job? Freedom to Make Decisions — How much decision making freedom, without supervision, does the job offer? Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — How important is repeating the same physical activities e. Consequence of Error — How serious would the result usually be if the worker made a mistake that was not readily correctable?

Related Experience Some previous work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is usually needed. For example, a teller would benefit from experience working directly with the public. Job Training Employees in these occupations need anywhere from a few months to one year of working with experienced employees. A recognized apprenticeship program may be associated with these occupations. Job Zone Examples These occupations often involve using your knowledge and skills to help others. Examples include orderlies, counter and rental clerks, customer service representatives, security guards, upholsterers, and tellers. SVP Range 4. All 16 displayed. Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.

Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations. Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical. Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude. Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done. Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges. Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems. Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.

Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations. Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job. Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction. Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.

State governments in the South and West were approximately 40 and 39 percentage points, respectively, less likely to offer refundable EITCs for the years evaluated compared with states in the Northeast. Similar regional patterns emerge for unemployment insurance. Those benefits replaced 3. Meanwhile, the UI recipiency rate—the measure of how many people actually receive UI among the eligible population—was 17, 11, and 10 percentage points lower in the South, Midwest, and West, respectively, than in the Northeast for the years evaluated.

According to this analysis, for every families in poverty, state governments provided cash assistance to 27, 18, and 16 fewer residents in the South, Midwest, and West, respectively, for the years evaluated relative to the Northeast. State governments in the South were 73 percent more likely to have enacted right-to-work laws across the years evaluated; relative to states in the Northeast, they promote policy conditions less amenable to workers that seek to gain bargaining power through unionization. State governments in the Midwest were 50 percent more likely than states in the Northeast to have implemented right-to-work laws, and those in the West were 38 percent more likely to have done so.

This came through quite clearly in unionization rates across the four regions. For all workers, states in the South had unionization rates 8 percentage points lower than states in the Northeast, while states in the Midwest and West had fewer workers represented by a union, by 4 and 2 percentage points, respectively. As stated earlier in this report, regions with more people of color, particularly Black residents, report weaker safety nets and fewer protections for low-income workers; these workers are, in turn, disproportionately Black and brown, although weaker protections harm workers regardless of race or ethnicity.

Across the three years evaluated, the Black population in the South was 15 percentage points higher than in the Northeast. Meanwhile, the white population rate was 14 and 13 percentage points lower in the South and West, respectively, compared with the Northeast. One important geographic point likely understates the findings here. Maryland, Delaware, and the District of Columbia are all grouped as located within the South, following definitions from the U.

Census Bureau. However, many political economy analyses would define these as non-Southern, mid-Atlantic states. Over the past half century or so, Maryland, Delaware, and the District of Columbia—as well as Virginia in more recent years—have generally been more supportive of safety net programs and anti-poverty policies than the states that make up the remainder of the Southern region. This disparity can be observed over many of the charts in the interactive above. Similarly, there is significant variation within the Western region. For example, the Pacific Coast states—Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington—are much more hospitable to labor unions than others in the region. By grouping states into just four regions with the boundaries drawn the way they are, the disparities and regional inequities are muted and may be starker if the boundaries were adjusted accordingly.

Across a range of metrics, states in the South—the region with the weakest safety net across all categories described—reported higher levels of economic hardship and weaker economic output relative to states elsewhere across the years evaluated. Southern states, on average, reported higher poverty rates by a margin of 4. Relative to the Northeast, the West similarly had a higher poverty rate, by 1. As noted above, average regional differences in public policies and economic outcomes, while informative, should be interpreted cautiously. Some states throughout the South, West, and Midwest have strong safety nets and economic performance relative to the rest of their region and the country at large.

This is also true of several Southern and Midwestern metropolitan areas—well-known hubs of innovation and economic dynamism that are growing, in part, as a result of in-migration from the Northeast and Western regions of the country. There are a range of factors that contribute to individual and state-level economic growth. This analysis demonstrates a strong association between safety net support for low-income individuals and families and stronger economic security indicators overall.

And, given that a disproportionate number of people of color live at or near poverty while residing in states with weaker safety nets, inequities in safety net policy potentially exacerbate racial economic inequities in the nation as a whole. Efforts to reduce and eliminate poverty will benefit from a combination of federally and state-funded financial assistance, worker protections, and insurance against significant adverse events such as health scares and job loss. Evidence shows that safety net programs that boost earnings for low-income families improve both immediate and long-term health, educational, and career outcomes for adults and children in those families. Meanwhile, the decline of cash assistance since the late s was linked to increased food insecurity and child homelessness.

The evidence presented above clearly demonstrates that liquidity and economic security are associated with improved individual socioeconomic outcomes and that financial stability is associated with lower poverty and broader economic strength. That being the case, there are a range of actions that states and the federal government can take to support the economic well-being of their residents, many of whom will experience spells of poverty or near-poverty over the course of their working lives: The regional disparities in the strength of safety nets and worker protections should be corrected by the states currently providing far less assistance to low-income residents.

States should prioritize aid in the form of direct cash assistance, while broadening who can receive benefits and ensuring that those who are eligible actually receive aid and can navigate administrative burdens. Additionally, asset limits and earned income disregards in programs such as TANF should be raised to allow beneficiaries to build their savings and begin earning employment income without facing steep cutoffs in benefits that can trap them in poverty.

Aside from increasing direct cash assistance, there are several other actions states could take to improve their safety nets. Properly investing in administrative improvements in programs such as UI that have struggled to meet increased need during the pandemic would greatly help ensure that individuals in need can successfully navigate the social welfare system to receive benefits. Administrative burdens—including onerous paperwork and documentation requirements that individuals and families with lower incomes navigate in many states to receive safety net benefits—can exclude eligible individuals and families.

These burdens should be scrutinized and removed or significantly reduced wherever possible. And more generally, states should invest more in spreading awareness of safety net benefits so that all individuals who would be eligible for help do apply. Raising the minimum wage to a livable level and eliminating subminimum wages for tipped, disabled, and temporary teenage workers is crucial for guaranteeing incomes for all workers that better reflect everyday costs, including housing, transportation, and food expenses. In total, 44 states have a preemption law stopping localities from implementing stronger worker protections such as fair scheduling, paid leave, and gig economy regulations.

States can also support worker bargaining power, which has been linked to increased earnings and economic well-being and reduced inequality across race, ethnicity, and education for both workers in the union and workers elsewhere in the sector.

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