⚡ Lost Sister Poem Analysis

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Lost Sister Poem Analysis

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Paradise Lost by John Milton - Book 1 Summary \u0026 Analysis

It was not until years later that critics began to openly admire the poem. The poem is considered one of the most famous examples of Romanticism in English poetry, and is one of the most frequently anthologized poems in the English language. The poem is divided into three irregular stanzas, which move loosely between different times and places. The first stanza begins with a fanciful description of the origin of Kublai Khan's capital Xanadu lines 1—2. Ten miles of land were surrounded with fortified walls lines 6—7 , encompassing lush gardens and forests lines 8— So twice five miles of fertile ground With walls and towers were girdled round: And there were gardens bright with sinuous rills, Where blossomed many an incense-bearing tree; And here were forests ancient as the hills, Enfolding sunny spots of greenery.

The second stanza describes a mysterious canyon lines 12— A geyser erupted from the canyon lines 17—19 , throwing rubble into the air lines 20—23 and forming the source of the sacred river Alph line The river wandered through the woods, then reached the caves and dark sea described in the first stanza lines 25— Kubla Khan, present for the eruption, heard a prophecy of war lines 29— An indented section presents an image of the pleasure-dome reflected on the water, surrounded by the sound of the geyser above ground and the river underground lines 31— A final un-indented couplet describes the dome again lines 35— But oh! A savage place!

And from this chasm, with ceaseless turmoil seething, As if this earth in fast thick pants were breathing, A mighty fountain momently was forced: Amid whose swift half-intermitted burst Huge fragments vaulted like rebounding hail, Or chaffy grain beneath the thresher's flail: And 'mid these dancing rocks at once and ever It flung up momently the sacred river. Five miles meandering with a mazy motion Through wood and dale the sacred river ran, Then reached the caverns measureless to man, And sank in tumult to a lifeless ocean: And 'mid this tumult Kubla heard from far Ancestral voices prophesying war!

The shadow of the dome of pleasure Floated midway on the waves; Where was heard the mingled measure From the fountain and the caves. It was a miracle of rare device, A sunny pleasure-dome with caves of ice! The third stanza shifts to the first-person perspective of the poem's speaker. He once saw a woman in a vision playing a dulcimer lines 37— If he could revive her song within himself, he says, he would revive the pleasure dome itself with music lines 42— Those who heard would also see themselves there, and cry out a warning lines 48— Their warning concerns an alarming male figure line The stanza ends with instructions and a warning, to carry out a ritual because he has consumed the food of Paradise lines 51— Could I revive within me Her symphony and song, To such a deep delight 'twould win me That with music loud and long, I would build that dome in air, That sunny dome!

And all who heard should see them there, And all should cry, Beware! His flashing eyes, his floating hair! Weave a circle round him thrice, And close your eyes with holy dread, For he on honey-dew hath fed, And drunk the milk of Paradise. Kubla Khan was likely written in October , though the precise date and circumstances of the first composition of Kubla Khan are slightly ambiguous, due to limited direct evidence.

Coleridge usually dated his poems, but did not date Kubla Khan , [5] and did not mention the poem directly in letters to his friends. Coleridge's descriptions of the poem's composition attribute it to In a manuscript in Coleridge's handwriting known as the Crewe manuscript , a note by Coleridge says that it was composed "in the fall of the year, A May composition date is sometimes proposed because the first written record of the poem is in Dorothy Wordsworth's journal, October October has also been suggested because by then Coleridge would have been able to read Robert Southey 's Thalaba the Destroyer , a work which drew on the same sources as Kubla Khan.

At both time periods, Coleridge was again in the area of Ash Farm, near Culbone Church , where Coleridge consistently described composing the poem. However, the October composition date is more widely accepted. In September , Coleridge lived in Nether Stowey in the southwest of England and spent much of his time walking through the nearby Quantock Hills with his fellow poet William Wordsworth and Wordsworth's sister Dorothy [11] his route today is memorialised as the " Coleridge Way ". On his return journey, he became sick and rested at Ash Farm, located near Culbone Church and one of the few places to seek shelter on his route. Coleridge described the circumstances of his dream and the poem in two places: on a manuscript copy written some time before , and in the preface to the printed version of the poem published in According to the extended preface narrative, Coleridge was reading Purchas his Pilgrimes by Samuel Purchas , and fell asleep after reading about Kublai Khan.

Then, he says, he "continued for about three hours in a profound sleep On Awaking he appeared to himself to have a distinct recollection of the whole, and taking his pen, ink, and paper, instantly and eagerly wrote down the lines that are here preserved. When John Livingston Lowes taught the poem, he told his students "If there is any man in the history of literature who should be hanged, drawn, and quartered, it is the man on business from Porlock. There are some problems with Coleridge's account, especially the claim to have a copy of Purchas with him.

It was a rare book, unlikely to be at a "lonely farmhouse", nor would an individual carry it on a journey; the folio was heavy and almost 1, pages in size. Instead, the effects of the opium, as described, are intended to suggest that he was not used to its effects. According to some critics, the second stanza of the poem, forming a conclusion, was composed at a later date and was possibly disconnected from the original dream. After its composition, Coleridge periodically read the poem to friends, as to the Wordsworths in , but did not seek to publish it. The poem was set aside until when Coleridge compiled manuscripts of his poems for a collection titled Sibylline Leaves.

A Fragment". Printed with Kubla Khan was a preface that claimed a dream provided Coleridge the lines. Sometimes, the preface is included in modern editions but lacks both the first and final paragraphs. The book contained a brief description of Xanadu, the summer capital of the Mongol ruler Kublai Khan. Coleridge's preface says that. And thus ten miles of fertile ground were inclosed with a wall. Coleridge names the wrong book by Purchas Purchas wrote three books, his Pilgrimage , his Pilgrim , and his Pilgrimes ; the last was his collection of travel stories , and misquotes the line. The text about Xanadu in Purchas, His Pilgrimes , which Coleridge admitted he did not remember exactly, was:.

In Xandu did Cublai Can build a stately Pallace, encompassing sixteen miles of plaine ground with a wall, wherein are fertile Meddowes, pleasant Springs, delightfull streames, and all sorts of beasts of chase and game, and in the middest thereof a sumptuous house of pleasure, which may be moved from place to place. This quotation was based upon the writings of the Venetian explorer Marco Polo who is widely believed to have visited Xanadu in about In terms of spelling, Coleridge's printed version differs from Purchas's spelling, which refers to the Tartar ruler as "Cublai Can", and from the spelling used by Milton, "Cathaian Can".

In the Crewe manuscript the earlier unpublished version of the poem , the Abyssinian maid is singing of Mount Amara, rather than Abora. It was a natural fortress, and was the site of the royal treasury and the royal prison. The sons of the Emperors of Abyssinia, except for the heir, were held prisoner there, to prevent them from staging a coup against their father, until the Emperor's death. Mount Amara was visited between and by Portuguese priest, explorer and diplomat Francisco Alvares — , who was on a mission to meet the Christian king of Ethiopia. His description of Mount Amara was published in , and appears in Purchas, his Pilgrimes , the book Coleridge was reading before he wrote "Kubla Khan".

Mount Amara also appears in Milton's Paradise Lost :. In fact the Blue Nile is very far from the other three rivers mentioned in Genesis —14, but this belief led to the connection in 18th and 19th century English literature between Mount Amara and Paradise. Charles Lamb provided Coleridge on 15 April with a copy of his "A Vision of Repentance", a poem that discussed a dream containing imagery similar to those in "Kubla Khan". The poem could have provided Coleridge with the idea of a dream poem that discusses fountains, sacredness, and even a woman singing a sorrowful song.

Opium itself has also been seen as a "source" for many of the poem's features, such as its disorganized action. These features are similar to writing by other contemporary opium eaters and writers, such as Thomas de Quincey and Charles Pierre Baudelaire. Coleridge may also have been influenced by the surrounding of Culbone Combe and its hills, gulleys, and other features including the "mystical" and "sacred" locations in the region. Other geographic influences include the river, which has been tied to Alpheus in Greece and is similar to the Nile. The caves have been compared to those in Kashmir. The poem is different in style and form from other poems composed by Coleridge.

While incomplete and subtitled a "fragment", its language is highly stylised with a strong emphasis on sound devices that change between the poem's original two stanzas. The poem according to Coleridge's account, is a fragment of what it should have been, amounting to what he was able to jot down from memory: 54 lines. The second stanza is not necessarily part of the original dream and refers to the dream in the past tense. The poem relies on many sound-based techniques, including cognate variation and chiasmus. Its rhyme scheme found in the first seven lines is repeated in the first seven lines of the second stanza.

There is a heavy use of assonance , the reuse of vowel sounds, and a reliance on alliteration, repetition of the first sound of a word, within the poem including the first line: "In Xanadu did Kubla Khan". The stressed sounds, "Xan", "du", "Ku", "Khan", contain assonance in their use of the sounds a-u-u-a, have two rhyming syllables with "Xan" and "Khan", and employ alliteration with the name "Kubla Khan" and the reuse of "d" sounds in "Xanadu" and "did".

To pull the line together, the "i" sound of "In" is repeated in "did". Later lines do not contain the same amount of symmetry but do rely on assonance and rhymes throughout. The only word that has no true connection to another word is "dome" except in its use of a "d" sound. Though the lines are interconnected, the rhyme scheme and line lengths are irregular. The first lines of the poem follow iambic tetrameter with the initial stanza relying on heavy stresses.

The lines of the second stanza incorporate lighter stresses to increase the speed of the meter to separate them from the hammer-like rhythm of the previous lines. Kubla Khan is also related to the genre of fragmentary poetry, with internal images reinforcing the idea of fragmentation that is found within the form of the poem. Although the land is one of man-made "pleasure", there is a natural, "sacred" river that runs past it. The lines describing the river have a markedly different rhythm from the rest of the passage. The finite properties of the constructed walls of Xanadu are contrasted with the infinite properties of the natural caves through which the river runs.

The poem expands on the gothic hints of the first stanza as the narrator explores the dark chasm in the midst of Xanadu's gardens, and describes the surrounding area as both "savage" and "holy". Yarlott interprets this chasm as symbolic of the poet struggling with decadence that ignores nature. Fountains are often symbolic of the inception of life, and in this case may represent forceful creativity. Yarlott argues that the war represents the penalty for seeking pleasure, or simply the confrontation of the present by the past. The vision of the sites, including the dome, the cavern, and the fountain, are similar to an apocalyptic vision.

Together, the natural and man-made structures form a miracle of nature as they represent the mixing of opposites together, the essence of creativity. Harold Bloom suggests that this passage reveals the narrator's desire to rival Khan's ability to create with his own. The subsequent passage refers to unnamed witnesses who may also hear this, and thereby share in the narrator's vision of a replicated, ethereal, Xanadu. Harold Bloom suggests that the power of the poetic imagination, stronger than nature or art, fills the narrator and grants him the ability to share this vision with others through his poetry. The narrator would thereby be elevated to an awesome, almost mythical status, as one who has experienced an Edenic paradise available only to those who have similarly mastered these creative powers.

One theory says that "Kubla Khan" is about poetry and the two sections discuss two types of poems. The poem celebrates creativity and how the poet is able to experience a connection to the universe through inspiration. As a poet, Coleridge places himself in an uncertain position as either master over his creative powers or a slave to it. The poet is separated from the rest of humanity after he is exposed to the power to create and is able to witness visions of truth.

This separation causes a combative relationship between the poet and the audience as the poet seeks to control his listener through a mesmerising technique. The Preface then allows for Coleridge to leave the poem as a fragment, which represents the inability for the imagination to provide complete images or truly reflect reality. The poem would not be about the act of creation but a fragmentary view revealing how the act works: how the poet crafts language and how it relates to himself. Through use of the imagination, the poem is able to discuss issues surrounding tyranny, war, and contrasts that exist within paradise. The poet, in Coleridge's system, is able to move from the world of understanding, where men normally are, and enter into the world of the imagination through poetry.

When the narrator describes the "ancestral voices prophesying war", the idea is part of the world of understanding, or the real world. As a whole, the poem is connected to Coleridge's belief in a secondary Imagination that can lead a poet into a world of imagination, and the poem is both a description of that world and a description of how the poet enters the world. The water imagery is also related to the divine and nature, and the poet is able to tap into nature in a way Kubla Khan cannot to harness its power.

Towards the end of , Coleridge was fascinated with the idea of a river and it was used in multiple poems including "Kubla Khan" and "The Brook". In his Biographia Literaria , he explained, "I sought for a subject, that should give equal room and freedom for description, incident, and impassioned reflections on men, nature, and society, yet supply in itself a natural connection to the parts and unity to the whole. Such a subject I conceived myself to have found in a stream, traced from its source in the hills among the yellow-red moss and conical glass-shaped tufts of bent, to the first break or fall, where its drops become audible, and it begins to form a channel". Additionally, many of the images are connected to a broad use of Ash Farm and the Quantocks in Coleridge's poetry, and the mystical settings of both Osorio and "Kubla Khan" are based on his idealised version of the region.

However, the styles are very different as one is heavily structured and rhymed while the other tries to mimic conversational speech. What they do have in common is that they use scenery based on the same location, including repeated uses of dells, rocks, ferns, and a waterfall found in the Somerset region. When considering all of The Picture and not just the excerpt, Coleridge describes how inspiration is similar to a stream and that if an object is thrown into it the vision is interrupted. The Tatars ruled by Kubla Khan were seen in the tradition Coleridge worked from as a violent, barbaric people and were used in that way when Coleridge compared others to Tatars.

They were seen as worshippers of the sun, but uncivilised and connected to either the Cain or Ham line of outcasts. However, Coleridge describes Khan in a peaceful light and as a man of genius. He seeks to show his might but does so by building his own version of paradise. The description and the tradition provide a contrast between the daemonic and genius within the poem, and Khan is a ruler who is unable to recreate Eden.

Though the imagery can be dark, there is little moral concern as the ideas are mixed with creative energies. Nature, in the poem is not a force of redemption but one of destruction, and the paradise references reinforce what Khan cannot attain. Although the Tatars are barbarians from China, they are connected to ideas within the Judaeo Christian tradition, including the idea of Original Sin and Eden. The place was described in negative terms and seen as an inferior representation of paradise, and Coleridge's ethical system did not connect pleasure with joy or the divine. The river, Alph, replaces the one from Eden that granted immortality [ citation needed ] and it disappears into a sunless sea that lacks life.

The image is further connected to the Biblical, post-Edenic stories in that a mythological story attributes the violent children of Ham becoming the Tatars, and that Tartarus, derived from the location, became a synonym for hell. Coleridge believed that the Tatars were violent, and that their culture was opposite to the civilised Chinese. The land is similar to the false paradise of Mount Amara in Paradise Lost , especially the Abyssinian maid's song about Mount Abora that is able to mesmerise the poet. In the manuscript copy, the location was named both Amora and Amara, and the location of both is the same.

In post-Milton accounts, the kingdom is linked with the worship of the sun, and his name is seen to be one that reveals the Khan as a priest. This is reinforced by the connection of the river Alph with the Alpheus, a river that in Greece was connected to the worship of the sun. As followers of the sun, the Tatar are connected to a tradition that describes Cain as founding a city of sun worshippers and that people in Asia would build gardens in remembrance of the lost Eden. In the tradition Coleridge relies on, the Tatar worship the sun because it reminds them of paradise, and they build gardens because they want to recreate paradise. Read Complete Poem. I remember hearing this poem as a little youngster. I would also read this to my daughter and nephews each year right before Christmas!

It is a wonderful poem to share with your family! Read complete story. O Christmas tree, O Christmas tree, You truly are a beauty. I used to love to put you up, Now it's a dreaded duty. I wrote a letter to Santa To make sure he would know It's only two weeks until Christmas And we still don't have any snow. I left it too late. Page Number and Citation : 38 Cite this Quote. Explanation and Analysis:. Related Themes: Dignity and Pride. Page Number and Citation : 48 Cite this Quote. Act 1, Scene 2 Quotes. Page Number and Citation : 61 Cite this Quote. Act 3 Quotes. Related Characters: Beneatha Younger speaker.

Related Symbols: The Insurance Payment. Page Number and Citation : Cite this Quote. Related Themes: Race, Discrimination, and Assimilation. The colored dots and icons indicate which themes are associated with that appearance. Act 1, Scene 1. As Ruth Mama enters from her bedroom and asks Beneatha and Ruth about the argument with Walter that she just overheard. When Beneatha exits to Act 1, Scene 2. The following Saturday morning Beneatha and Mama clean the apartment thoroughly, a regular occurrence in the Younger household. Travis asks Beneatha answers the phone and has a brief conversation with her classmate, Joseph Asagai, who asks While waiting for Travis, Before Asagai can exit, Mama reenters and Beneatha introduces her to Asagai.

Honoring her promise to Beneatha , Mama refrains from asking Asagai ignorant Act 2, Scene 1. Embarrassed, Ruth orders Walter off of the table. He exits. Ruth tries to make small talk with George while Beneatha dresses. Beneatha and George leave, and George sarcastically Act 2, Scene 2. On a Friday night a few weeks later, George and Beneatha enter the apartment after a date.

Wearing a bathrobe, Beneatha enters from her bedroom and heads to the bathroom. Johnson exits.

Lost Sister Poem Analysis University Press. Charles Lamb provided My Final Reflection: My Experience As A Teacher on 15 April with a Lost Sister Poem Analysis of Lost Sister Poem Analysis "A Lost Sister Poem Analysis of Repentance", a Lost Sister Poem Analysis that discussed a dream containing imagery similar to those in "Kubla Khan". Nicholas soon would be there. Sign Up. What are person-centred values tone, the poem juxtaposes Lost Sister Poem Analysis with noise

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