✎✎✎ Thomas Edison Legacy

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Thomas Edison Legacy

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15 Things You Didn't Know About Thomas Edison

Boston Archived from the original on October 3, Retrieved October 3, Open Sandwich. Archived from the original on April 11, Retrieved April 2, Archived from the original on March 17, Retrieved March 28, Thomas Paine National Historical Association. Archived from the original on April 18, Retrieved July 18, Thomas Paine: Firebrand of the Revolution. Sussex Archaeological Society. Archived PDF from the original on March 7, Retrieved August 20, Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on September 15, Retrieved September 15, The Life of Thomas Paine vol. Thomas Paine and the Literature of Revolution. Cambridge University Press.

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Thomas Paine's American Ideology. University of Delaware Press. Archived from the original on February 7, Ayer, A. Bailyn, Bernard Bailyn ed. Common Sense. Alfred A. Bernstein, R. Butler, Marilyn Burke Paine and Godwin and the Revolution Controversy. Claeys, Gregory London: Unwin Hyman. Excellent analysis of Paine's thought. Conway, Moncure Daniel Long hailed as the definitive biography, and still valuable.

Ferguson, Robert A. Foner, Eric The standard monograph treating Paine's thought and work with regard to America. American National Biography Online. Archived from the original on September 18, Retrieved November 6, Greene, Jack P. Griffiths, Trevor Spokesman Books. Hawke, David Freeman Regarded by many American authorities as the standard biography. Hitchens, Christopher London: Atlantic Books. Kates, Gary Kaye, Harvey J. Keane, John Tom Paine: A Political Life.

One of the most valuable recent studies. Lamb, Robert Review of Politics. Larkin, Edward Lessay, Jean Levin, Yuval Basic Books. Their debate over the French Revolution. Lewis, Joseph L. New York: Freethought Press Association. Nelson, Craig Phillips, Mark May Powell, David Tom Paine, The Greatest Exile. Russell, Bertrand Early American Literature. Vincent, Bernard Later, he exhibited motion pictures with voice soundtrack on cylinder recordings, mechanically synchronized with the film.

Officially the kinetoscope entered Europe when wealthy American businessman Irving T. Maguire and Joseph D. Baucus a dozen machines. Bush placed from October 17, , the first kinetoscopes in London. In the last three months of , the Continental Commerce Company sold hundreds of kinetoscopes in Europe i. The first kinetoscopes arrived in Belgium at the Fairs in early The main investors in this company were Belgian industrialists. Businessman Ladislas-Victor Lewitzki, living in London but active in Belgium and France, took the initiative in starting this business. In , he also became a shareholder of the Biograph and Mutoscope Company for France.

Edison's film studio made nearly 1, films. The majority of the productions were short films showing everything from acrobats to parades to fire calls including titles such as Fred Ott's Sneeze , The Kiss , The Great Train Robbery , Alice's Adventures in Wonderland , and the first Frankenstein film in In , when the owners of Luna Park, Coney Island announced they would execute Topsy the elephant by strangulation, poisoning, and electrocution with the electrocution part ultimately killing the elephant , Edison Manufacturing sent a crew to film it, releasing it that same year with the title Electrocuting an Elephant.

As the film business expanded, competing exhibitors routinely copied and exhibited each other's films. Many of these paper prints survived longer and in better condition than the actual films of that era. In , Edison started the Motion Picture Patents Company , which was a conglomerate of nine major film studios commonly known as the Edison Trust. Thomas Edison was the first honorary fellow of the Acoustical Society of America , which was founded in Edison said his favorite movie was The Birth of a Nation.

He thought that talkies had "spoiled everything" for him. They concentrate on the voice now and have forgotten how to act. I can sense it more than you because I am deaf. Starting in the late s, Edison became interested and involved with mining. High-grade iron ore was scarce on the east coast of the United States and Edison tried to mine low-grade ore. Edison developed a process using rollers and crushers that could pulverize rocks up to 10 tons. The dust was then sent between three giant magnets that would pull the iron ore from the dust. Despite the failure of his mining company, the Edison Ore Milling Company , Edison used some of the materials and equipment to produce cement.

In , Edison visited an industrial exhibition in the Sudbury area in Ontario, Canada and thought nickel and cobalt deposits there could be used in his production of electrical equipment. He returned as a mining prospector and is credited with the original discovery of the Falconbridge ore body. His attempts to mine the ore body were not successful, and he abandoned his mining claim in In the late s, Edison worked on developing a lighter, more efficient rechargeable battery at that time called an "accumulator". He looked on them as something customers could use to power their phonographs but saw other uses for an improved battery, including electric automobiles. He had his lab work on many types of materials going through some 10, combinations , eventually settling on a nickel-iron combination.

Besides his experimenting Edison also probably had access to the patents for a nickel—iron battery by the Swedish inventor Waldemar Jungner. Edison obtained a US and European patent for his nickel—iron battery in and founded the Edison Storage Battery Company, and by it had people working there. The first rechargeable batteries they produced were for electric cars, but there were many defects, with customers complaining about the product. When the capital of the company was exhausted, Edison paid for the company with his private money. Edison did not demonstrate a mature product until a very efficient and durable nickel-iron-battery with lye as the electrolyte. The nickel—iron battery was never very successful; by the time it was ready, electric cars were disappearing, and lead acid batteries had become the standard for turning over gas-powered car starter motors.

At the start of World War I , the American chemical industry was primitive. Most chemicals were imported from Europe. The outbreak of war in August resulted in an immediate shortage of imported chemicals. One of particular importance to Edison was phenol , which was used to make phonograph records—presumably as phenolic resins of the Bakelite type. At the time, phenol came from coal as a by-product of coke oven gases or manufactured gas for gas lighting. Phenol could be nitrated to picric acid and converted to ammonium picrate , a shock resistant high explosive suitable for use in artillery shells. A telling of the phenol story is found in The Aspirin Wars. Britain also blockaded supplies from Germany. Edison responded by undertaking production of phenol at his Silver Lake facility using processes developed by his chemists.

Production began the first week of September, one month after hostilities began in Europe. He built two plants to produce raw material benzene at Johnstown, Pennsylvania , and Bessemer, Alabama , replacing supplies previously from Germany. Edison also manufactured aniline dyes , which previously had been supplied by the German dye trust. Other wartime products include xylene , p-phenylenediamine , shellac , and pyrax. Wartime shortages made these ventures profitable.

In , his production capacity was fully committed by midyear. Phenol was a critical material because two derivatives were in high growth phases. Bakelite , the original thermoset plastic, had been invented in Aspirin , too was a phenol derivative. Invented in , it had become a block buster drug. Bayer had acquired a plant to manufacture in the US in Rensselaer, New York , but struggled to find phenol to keep their plant running during the war. Edison was able to oblige. Bayer relied on Chemische Fabrik von Heyden , in Piscataway, New Jersey , to convert phenol to salicylic acid, which they converted to aspirin.

See Great Phenol plot. It is said that German companies bought up supplies of phenol to block production of ammonium picrate. Edison preferred not to sell phenol for military uses. He sold his surplus to Bayer, who had it converted to salicylic acid by Heyden, some of which was exported. Henry Ford , the automobile magnate, later lived a few hundred feet away from Edison at his winter retreat in Fort Myers. Ford once worked as an engineer for the Edison Illuminating Company of Detroit and met Edison at a convention of affiliated Edison illuminating companies in Brooklyn, NY in Edison was impressed with Ford's internal combustion engine automobile and encouraged its developments.

They were friends until Edison's death. Edison and Ford undertook annual motor camping trips from to Harvey Firestone and naturalist John Burroughs also participated. He believed strongly in the organization, writing that "The Civitan Club is doing things—big things—for the community, state, and nation, and I certainly consider it an honor to be numbered in its ranks. Edison was active in business right up to the end. Just months before his death, the Lackawanna Railroad inaugurated suburban electric train service from Hoboken to Montclair , Dover , and Gladstone, New Jersey.

Electrical transmission for this service was by means of an overhead catenary system using direct current, which Edison had championed. Despite his frail condition, Edison was at the throttle of the first electric MU Multiple-Unit train to depart Lackawanna Terminal in Hoboken in September , driving the train the first mile through Hoboken yard on its way to South Orange.

This fleet of cars would serve commuters in northern New Jersey for the next 54 years until their retirement in A plaque commemorating Edison's inaugural ride can be seen today in the waiting room of Lackawanna Terminal in Hoboken, which is presently operated by New Jersey Transit. Edison was said to have been influenced by a popular fad diet in his last few years; "the only liquid he consumed was a pint of milk every three hours". However, this tale is doubtful. In , the year before Edison died, Mina said in an interview about him, "Correct eating is one of his greatest hobbies.

Edison became the owner of his Milan, Ohio, birthplace in On his last visit, in , he was reportedly shocked to find his old home still lit by lamps and candles. Edison died of complications of diabetes on October 18, , in his home, "Glenmont" in Llewellyn Park in West Orange, New Jersey , which he had purchased in as a wedding gift for Mina. Stephen J. Herben officiated at the funeral; [] Edison is buried behind the home. Edison's last breath is reportedly contained in a test tube at The Henry Ford museum near Detroit. Ford reportedly convinced Charles Edison to seal a test tube of air in the inventor's room shortly after his death, as a memento. On December 25, , at the age of 24, Edison married year-old Mary Stilwell — , whom he had met two months earlier; she was an employee at one of his shops.

They had three children:. Mary Edison died at age 29 on August 9, , of unknown causes: possibly from a brain tumor [] or a morphine overdose. Doctors frequently prescribed morphine to women in those years to treat a variety of causes, and researchers believe that her symptoms could have been from morphine poisoning. Edison generally preferred spending time in the laboratory to being with his family. They also had three children together:.

Mina outlived Thomas Edison, dying on August 24, Starting in the s, Thomas Jr. The situation became so bad that Thomas Sr. Thomas Jr. Historian Paul Israel has characterized Edison as a " freethinker ". Paine believed in a supreme intelligence, as representing the idea which other men often express by the name of deity. Blavatsky , he was not a very active member. Nature is what we know. We do not know the gods of religions. And nature is not kind, or merciful, or loving. If God made me—the fabled God of the three qualities of which I spoke: mercy, kindness, love—He also made the fish I catch and eat.

And where do His mercy, kindness, and love for that fish come in? No; nature made us—nature did it all—not the gods of the religions. Edison was accused of being an atheist for those remarks, and although he did not allow himself to be drawn into the controversy publicly, he clarified himself in a private letter:. You have misunderstood the whole article, because you jumped to the conclusion that it denies the existence of God. There is no such denial, what you call God I call Nature, the Supreme intelligence that rules matter. All the article states is that it is doubtful in my opinion if our intelligence or soul or whatever one may call it lives hereafter as an entity or disperses back again from whence it came, scattered amongst the cells of which we are made.

He also stated, "I do not believe in the God of the theologians; but that there is a Supreme Intelligence I do not doubt. Forbes of American Magazine that he was working on a "spirit phone" to allow communication with the dead, a story which other newspapers and magazines repeated. Edison was a supporter of women's suffrage. Nonviolence was key to Edison's political and moral views, and when asked to serve as a naval consultant for World War I , he specified he would work only on defensive weapons and later noted, "I am proud of the fact that I never invented weapons to kill.

Until we stop harming all other living beings, we are still savages. Edison was an advocate for monetary reform in the United States. He was ardently opposed to the gold standard and debt-based money. Edison argued that, if the government can produce debt-based money, it could equally as well produce money that was a credit to the taxpayer. During a publicity tour that he took with friend and fellow inventor, Henry Ford , he spoke publicly about his desire for monetary reform. For insight, he corresponded with prominent academic and banking professionals. In the end, however, Edison's proposals failed to find support and were abandoned. The following is an incomplete list of awards given to Edison during his lifetime and posthumously:.

Several places have been named after Edison, most notably the town of Edison, New Jersey. Edison Middle School. The small town of Alva just east of Fort Myers took Edison's middle name. In , the City Hotel in Sunbury, Pennsylvania was the first building to be lit with Edison's three-wire system. The hotel was renamed The Hotel Edison upon Edison's return to the city on In , Lake Thomas A Edison in California was named after Edison to mark the 75th anniversary of the incandescent light bulb.

Edison was on hand to turn on the lights at the Hotel Edison in New York City when it opened in In space, his name is commemorated in asteroid Edisona. Mount Edison in the Chugach Mountains of Alaska was named after him in In West Orange, New Jersey, the The depot has been named the Thomas Edison Depot Museum. Clair River. Edison's influence can be seen throughout this city of 32, The limestone fountain was dedicated October 21, , the fiftieth anniversary of the creation of the light bulb.

He was inducted into the Automotive Hall of Fame in A bronze statue of Edison was placed in the National Statuary Hall Collection at the United States Capitol in , with the formal dedication ceremony held on September 20 of that year. The Edison statue replaced one of 19th-century state governor William Allen that had been one of Ohio's two allowed contributions to the collection. The Edison Medal was created on February 11, , by a group of Edison's friends and associates. The first medal was presented in to Elihu Thomson. It is the oldest award in the area of electrical and electronics engineering , and is presented annually "for a career of meritorious achievement in electrical science, electrical engineering or the electrical arts".

In the Netherlands, the major music awards are named the Edison Award after him. The award is an annual Dutch music prize, awarded for outstanding achievements in the music industry, and is one of the oldest music awards in the world, having been presented since Edison Patent Award since to individual patents that demonstrate a significant impact on the practice of mechanical engineering.

The ship was decommissioned a few months after the end of World War II. Edison SSBN , a fleet ballistic missile nuclear-powered submarine. Thomas Edison has appeared in popular culture as a character in novels, films, comics and video games. His prolific inventing helped make him an icon and he has made appearances in popular culture during his lifetime down to the present day. Edison is also portrayed in popular culture as an adversary of Nikola Tesla.

On February 11, , on what would have been Thomas Edison's th birthday, Google's homepage featured an animated Google Doodle commemorating his many inventions. When the cursor was hovered over the doodle, a series of mechanisms seemed to move, causing a light bulb to glow. The following is a list of people who worked for Thomas Edison in his laboratories at Menlo Park or West Orange or at the subsidiary electrical businesses that he supervised. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. American inventor and businessman. For other uses, see Edison disambiguation. Milan , Ohio , U.

West Orange , New Jersey , U. Mary Stilwell. Mina Miller. Mary Had a Little Lamb. Main article: Incandescent light bulb. Main article: War of the currents. Play media. Main article: Thomas Edison in popular culture. The Economist. Retrieved September 16, Woodbridge, CT: Blackbirch Press. ISBN State of New Jersey. January 1, Archived from the original on October 30, Retrieved October 11, The Franklin Institute. Archived from the original on March 5, Retrieved February 24, Archived from the original on July 18, Retrieved December 31, Retrieved August 20, January 12, Archived from the original on August 8, Wheatmark, Inc. March 7, Edison: Inventing the Century.

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How much is that in real money? Retrieved January 1, Bounce Energy. Archived from the original on June 2, Thomas Edison: Life of an Electrifying Man. Filiquarian Publishing. Edison Papers". Archived from the original on June 30, Retrieved January 29, Teenage comments in response to our recent writing prompts, and an invitation to join the ongoing conversation. By The Learning Network. A guest opinion essay argues that modern zoos are harmful to the health and well-being of animals. Do you agree? Is it time to rethink the zoo, and perhaps even end them? By Jeremy Engle. Ricardo F. Jaramillo, a finalist of the Modern Love College Essay contest, illuminates his writing process. By Sharon Murchie. An invitation to show us — in words or images, audio or video — how you and your generation are being shaped by these extraordinary times.

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Thomas Edison Legacy of America. Menlo Park: The early years, April — Thomas Edison Legacy Bakelitethe Thesis And Pre-Drafting thermoset Thomas Edison Legacy, had Thomas Edison Legacy invented in

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